【首发】OMA :莫斯科格拉吉当代艺术博物馆设计

设计:OMA | 项目地点:俄罗斯 | 类别:文化教育 | 2015-06-24 7307 24

  Garage Museum of Contemporary Art is a renovation of the 1960s Vremena Goda (Seasons of the Year) restaurant, a prefabricated concrete pavilion which has been derelict for more than two decades. OMA's design for the 5,400 m2 building includes exhibition galleries on two levels, a creative center for children, shop, café, auditorium, offices, and roof terrace. The design preserves original Soviet-era elements, including a mosaic wall, tiles, and brick, while incorporating a range of innovative architectural and curatorial devices.  

  当我们提及一种历史文明时,总是习惯于用同时期的建筑来代表它,强烈的使命感让古迹改造充满魅力。而建筑师的当务之急,就是探索出一种建筑形式,既是有限的物理之所能及,同时又足够尊重其所属的文化。正如赖特所说:“我们从来不在山上造建筑,而是建一座属于那山的建筑。”

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  Garage Museum of Contemporary Art was founded in 2008 at the Konstantin Melnikov designed Bakhmetievsky Bus Garage. Relocating from a semi-industrial neighborhood in the north of Moscow to one of the city's best known public spaces (Gorky Park), Garage will address a much larger and diversified audience.

  由 OMA 操刀设计的莫斯科格拉吉当代艺术博物馆新馆址已于 6 月 12 日对公众开放。项目由 Rem Koolhaas(雷姆‧库哈斯)和 Ekaterina Golovatyuk 带领设计,博物馆改建自莫斯科高尔基公园内的四季餐厅,其原建于二十世纪六十年代的预制混凝土结构,是苏联时代的历史遗迹。 

  Exposed to snow, rain, and sun since it was abandoned in the 1990s, the former Vremena Goda restaurant – once a popular destination in Gorky Park – has become a ruin without facades. Even as a ruin it preserves the "collective" aura of the Soviet era: it is a sober public space adorned with tiles, mosaics and bricks.  

  美的建筑是真正用心灵构想而成的有机体,也是在灵感的指导作用下,用最佳技艺创作而成的艺术品。新馆址占地面积有 5,400 平方米, 提供三层开放式空间,缔造出丰富的新功能内容,包括多元化的展馆、试映室、礼堂、儿童创意中心等的教育和研究空间、书店、咖啡厅和屋顶平台。 

  The building offers two levels of unobstructed open space that will be dedicated to exhibitions, organized around two circulation and service cores. museum programs occupy three levels, adapting to spatial and structural possibilities of the existing structure. The more fragmented spaces in the North Eastern part of the pavilion surrounding the main core primarily accommodate education and research programs. The large open spaces in the South Western part are dedicated to exhibitions, projects and events.  

  “保护策略在现有城市的处理方法中变得越来越重要,但是对于20世纪60至80年代的建筑而言,情况却并非如此,这些建筑在全球各地均得不到重视,鲜有人追捧、甚至无人为其辩护。正是这个原因,我们很乐意把几成废墟的四季餐厅改造成格拉吉当代艺术博物馆的新馆址”雷姆‧库哈斯说。


  The building offers a wide range of interior conditions for the exhibition of art beyond the ubiquitous “white cube” and provides innovative curatorial possibilities, such as hinged white walls that can be folded down from the ceiling. They provide an instant white cube when an exhibition demands a more neutral environment, while the existing walls retain their brick and green tile cladding.  

  建筑物总是产生于它的文脉以及使它能够建成的技术。任何东西,其特性与其制作方法必定是互相渗透、互相包含的。博物馆的轮廓独特,外型醒目:入口以两块可滑动的大面积外立面板为标记,往上推开后,从公园能清楚看见建筑物内部,而置于双层通高大堂里的艺术作品也变得非常显眼。 

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  改造中保留了马赛克墙壁、瓷砖和砖块等原有的苏联时代元素,同时也加入了一系列创新的建筑设计。半透明的聚碳酸酯外立面抬升至离地两米,使博物馆从内到外、从外到内的视野均毫无阻隔,并重新建立展馆内部和公园之间的视觉联系。

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  A 9x11-metre opening in the floor of the upper level creates a double height space (10 metres) for the lobby, allowing extra-large sculptures to be displayed. A public loop on the lower level will connect the bookshop, mediatheque, auditorium and a café, which is envisioned as an informal living room with Soviet era furniture.   The existing concrete structure is enclosed with a new translucent double layer polycarbonate façade that will accommodate a large portion of the building's ventilation equipment, allowing the exhibition spaces to remain free. The facade is lifted 2.25 metres from the ground in order to visually reconnect the pavilion's interior to the park.  

  建筑师必须是伟大的雕塑家和画家,如若不是,他只能算个建造者。在格拉吉当代艺术博物馆改造的过程中,设计师极力探索苏联时代的遗迹在空间感、尺寸、 开阔性和透明度等方面的素质,并为其找到新的用途和演绎方式;避免对标准和规模过分强调,而这个现象也逐渐变成当代艺术空间的重要一环。 

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  The entrance to Garage Gorky Park is marked by two large facade panels that slide upwards to frame the art in the lobby's double height space and provide a view through the building from the park.   

  博物馆的室内空间为艺术展览提供了各种各样的环境,并带来全新的策展可能性。例如,白色的活动式墙板安装了铰链与天花相接,遇到需要中性场景的展览时可以通过放下墙板令空间顿时变成“白盒子”,同时旧墙身又可保留原来的砖块和绿色瓷砖,如此设计才能叫复古,而其他只能算旧。 

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  不仅如此,设计创作也要与常识、传统、现实环境和对人的关怀相协调。人文主义的考虑应超乎所有技术的、经济的、审美的考虑之上。博物馆的旧址位于莫斯科北部的半工业区,在搬迁到高尔基公园这个城中最常用的公共空间之后, 将能面向更广、更多元化的观众群。 

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建筑模型

编辑:周硕

设计师: Rem Koolhaas、 Ekaterina Golovatyuk

开业时间:2015年6月12日

项目地点:莫斯科高尔基公园

摄影:David X Prutting

图片由BFA.com提供 

 
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